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Defining Science

The relationship between sociological perspective, methodology and methods; definitions of "science" and a "scientific ethos; the concept of methodology and its relationship to methods.

Is Sociology A Science?

The theoretical basis of sociological methodologies such as Positivism and Interpretivism; the difference between inductive and deductive positivism; the Hypothetico-Deductive model of scientific methodology; the Realist critique of positivism; the relationship between sociology and science.

 Is Science Scientific?


The theoretical principles of Positivist, Interpretivist and Realist methodologies; The difference between reconstructed logics and logics-in-use.

Is Science Scientific?


The idea that all observation is theory-dependent; The extent to which a positivist methodology is characteristic of Natural science; The concept of science considered as an ideology; The Realist view of science.

Is Sociology a Science?

Written by Jonathan Blundell, this examines a range of ideas, including positivism and interpretivism, relating to the question of whether or not sociology can be considered a science.

Sociology and Science

Positivist, Realist, Interpretivist and Feminist forms of science, reliability and validity.

Research Considerations

Practical and theoretical research considerations; The "four-cornered relationship model" of sociological research; The concepts of: Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology and Methods and their theoretical relationship.

Reliability, Validity, Triangulation

The concepts of reliability and validity. The concept of triangulation (methodological and theoretical).


Definitions of value-freedom, objectivity and subjectivity; Objectivism and Subjectivism; The difference between personal objectivity / subjectivity and methodological objectivity / subjectivity; Notes on Post-Modernist conceptions of knowledge.

Sociological Theory Chapter

This complete textbook chapter, taken from A2 Sociology for AQA, covers:

1. Concepts of modernity and postmodernity in relation to sociological theory – consensus, conflict, structural and social action theories.

2. The nature of ‘science’ and the extent to which sociology may be regarded as scientific.

3. The relationship between theory and methods.

4. Debates about subjectivity, objectivity and value-freedom.

5. The relationship between sociology and social policy.

Risk Society

If you're looking for an easy way to introduce your students to Beck's concept of Risk Society, the Bad News is there probably isn't one. The Good News, however, is that this set of Notes might conceivably help. Plus, it has pictures, although whether or not that will make much difference is a moot point.

Sociology ShortCuts: Risk Society

Issue 1 (April 2022) of Sociology ShortCuts Magazine is devoted to an overview and explanation of Beck's concept of Risk Society. This is the pdf version and it's also available as an Online Flipbook (just like a Real Magazine but without the print that rubs off on your fingers).



Basic principles of Positivist, Realist and Interpretivist methodology.



Reference chart applying concepts of Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology and Methods.


Basic overview of Functionalist principles and general criticisms of this perspective.


Basic overview of Marxist principles and general criticisms of this perspective.


Basic overview of Weberian principles and general criticisms of this perspective.


Basic overview of Interactionist Sociology, including basic principles and general criticisms.

Sociological Theory

An introduction to the concept of theory; understanding sociological perspectives (Functionalism, Marxism, Interactionism, Feminism, Post-Modernism).



Revision notes that provide an overview of the basic principles involved in various different forms of Feminist thought (Liberal, Marxist, Socialist, Radical), general points of criticism in relation to each type of Feminism.



Revision chart that provides an overview of the basic principles involved in various different forms of Feminist thought (Liberal, Marxist, Socialist, Radical, Black and Post-modern). A brief - but more user-friendly - outline of each strand of Feminism..


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